The University of New Orleans (UNO), the urban research university of the State of
Louisiana, provides essential support for the educational, economic, cultural, and
social well-being of the culturally rich, diverse New Orleans metropolitan area. Located
in an international city, the university serves as an important link between Louisiana
and both the nation and the world. The university strategically serves the needs of
the region through its undergraduate and graduate programs and through mutually beneficial
collaborations with public and private bodies whose missions and goals are consistent
with and supportive of UNO's teaching as well as its scholarly and community service
Philosophical and Pedagogical Foundations
The Theory-Practice-Research-Interaction Model guides the construction of the unit’s
curricula, instruction, and application. It is based on our discussions and readings
in a variety of areas in educational theory, research, and practice, including diversity
(Alyson, 1985; Banks, 2007; hooks, 1992, 2000, 2004; Pulitano, 2003; Sugirtharijah,
2003), gender issues (American Association of University Women, 1990; Belenky, Clinchy,
McVicker, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1997; Brown, & Gilligan, 1990; Gilligan, 1982; Sadker
& Sadker, 1986; Smith, 1982; Walker, 1985; Williams, 2006), curriculum theory and
design (Bruner, 1964, 1968, 1973, 1990; Eisner, 1992, 1985a, b; Greene, 1999; Grumet,
1988; Pinar & Reynolds, 1992), critical theory and post colonialism (Apple, 1993,
1995, 2004; Bourdieu, & Passeron, 1977; Chrisman, 2003; Giroux, Lankshear, McLaren,
& Peters, 1996; Liberman, 1993; Mair, 2003; Ravitch, 2011; Singh & Schmidt, 2000),
social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), constructivism (Bereiter, 1994; Glasersfeld,
1996; Phillips, 1995; Resnick, 1986; Steffe & Kieren, 1994; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986),
development (Brainerd, 1974; Inhelder, & Piaget, 1958; Piaget, 1952a,b, 1970a, b,
1971; Piaget & Inhelder, 1956), school and home cultures (Bruner, 1996; Ogbu, 1981;
Ward, 1986), classroom discourse (Cazden, 1988; Mehan, 1979), progressivism (Dewey,
1909/1975, 1910, 1911, 1916/1966, 1920, 1938, 1964; Dixon, 1992; Egan, 2011), epistemology
(Eisner, 1985a, b; Foucault, 1972), liberation theory/pedagogy/praxis (Freire,1973,
1990,1996, 1998), coping (Frydenberg, 1997), change (Fullen, 2003; Lankshear & Knobel,
2006), multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1993), moral development (Kohlberg, 1981,
1984), poverty (Kozul, 1992), science (Kuhn, 1996; Lakatos & Musgrave, 1970; Popper,
1963), communication theories (McLuhan, 1962), caring (Noddings, 1998), and language
development and linguistics (Chomsky, 1957, 1965, 1968; Searle, 1984; Slobin, 1985a,
b, c, d, 1997).
Practice is a collection of empirical actions engaging active participation in the
curriculum. It forms from the interaction of theory (personal, disciplinary, and cultural)
and research to build the curriculum enactment, which engages learners and their instructors
at every level in inquiry, activity, and assessment. Practice is guided by inquiry
into theories and research in such areas as social justice, diversity, learner development,
linguistic variation, performance, culturally sustaining pedagogy (Paris, 2012), and
Research is a discourse on practice and theory where empirical evidence is presented,
analyzed, and interpreted to validate and falsify practice and as input to theory
construction. It forms from the interaction of practice and theory to construct the
rationales for and evaluations of practice; it presents anomalies for further research
and theory building through empirical actions. Research in both qualitative and quantitative
modes is required for the construction of practice and theory.
Theory is a meta-discourse on traditions and interpretation of research and practice.
It interacts with practices and research to build new theory and continue the validation
of traditions. Theory is guided by inquiry using tools and scholarship into education
and other disciplines to build explanatory discourses on institutions and individuals.
Together, the interactions of theory, practice, and research undergird the roles and
responsibilities of candidates in the College of Education and Human Development at
UNO. The Theory-Practice-Research-Interaction Model provides the unit with a complex
and nuanced organization that provides a shared basis for actions of all the participants
in the COEHD’s programs.
The figure depicts the conceptual framework (CF) for the professional education programs
in the COEHD. Our conceptual framework, the theory-practice-research-interaction model,
permeates the programs that prepare candidates for professional roles in school settings.
As candidates progress through their professional studies, they are introduced to
formal theories and concepts validated by research and practice, which, along with
their personally held beliefs and assumptions, inform their professional practice
and the development of theories.
As candidates engage in various clinical and field experiences, observation and study
of professional practices inform and refine the educational theories and concepts
they construct, providing an experiential basis for understanding research and implementing
research-based practices. Our goal is to have candidates internalize the theory-practice-research-interaction
model as they develop into reflective practitioners constantly reassessing the educational
theories, beliefs, and assumptions they embrace.
In addition, we in the COEHD regularly revisit the formal and informal theories, practices,
and research to which we subscribe as we reflect on the feedback from candidates who
complete our programs, as well as from the professional educators, family members,
and community personnel who work with our candidates in clinical and field experiences.
This continuous input helps us better prepare our candidates to be highly effective
The COEHD model includes two constructs: levels, roles and responsibilities where
theory, practice and research interact.
The first construct refers to two program levels: initial and advanced. Initial level
programs include all programs of study resulting in initial teaching certification.
This level includes the undergraduate degree programs as well as the Master of Arts
in Teaching (M.A.T.) programs, each of which results in initial certification. Advanced
level programs include all programs that result in additional (add-on) certifications
or an advanced degree in the field of education. This level includes masters (M.Ed.)
and doctoral (Ph.D.) programs as well as the aforementioned advanced/add-on certification
Roles and Responsibilities
The second construct, roles and responsibilities, refers to the tasks and responsibilities
assumed by educators to be effective in terms of student learning and school improvement.
The roles and responsibilities outline the broad domains for developing competence
for novices becoming teachers and administrators as viewed through the lens of Theory-Practice-Research-Interaction.
Three sets of roles, one for each key school career addressed by the College of Education
and Human Development, are included in the framework.
The roles of effective teachers were identified via a review of the various Specialized
Professional Associations (SPAs) that inform the standards for the multiple Teacher
Education certification areas offered by the college, state standards, the Danielson
Model, the state’s COMPASS evaluation system for teachers, the Common Core State Standards,
and the gaps associated with the various theoretical foundations and research informing
our practices. The roles for Educational Leaders are aligned with the Educational
Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC). The standards associated with the Council for
the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) were used
to develop the roles for Counselor Educators.
The roles are primarily used to form a framework to assist candidates in reflecting
on their professional practice and the outcomes resulting from their work with students
and schools. These roles are used in two ways: 1) to critique candidate performance
by determining the specific roles in which he/she is engaged to bring about a specific
outcome, and 2) to identify the next steps to take in order to extend current work
or engage in an improvement initiative. The role framework provides support for the
program of study to move beyond a competency-based program in which specific performances
are demonstrated one time to verify knowledge and skills, to a performance-based program
in which specific knowledge and skills are used in different combinations based on
the presenting need of the student and setting. Following are the roles that support
teachers, educational leaders, and counselors to be Reflective Practitioners:
Roles and Responsibilities of Professionals in Teacher Education
- Effective teachers manage classroom contexts and environments, establishing a culture
for learning by managing classroom procedures, managing student behavior, organizing
physical space, organizing classrooms to integrate technology, and maintaining accurate
records using available technology. They create an environment of respect and rapport
by using cultural contexts in the classroom, demonstrating knowledge of diversity
among students, and presenting rationales for change to meet student needs.
- Effective teachers design curriculum and instruction. They understand and use curriculum
and instruction, by knowing content and pedagogy, setting instructional outcomes,
designing coherent instruction, designing student assessments, and incorporating knowledge
of diversity in the classroom. They plan for the use of technologies in curriculum
and instruction and demonstrate knowledge of resources, including technologies. They
plan for the use of collaborative group practices in the classroom, and they incorporate
effective written and oral communication in the classroom.
- Effective teachers deliver instruction and assess learning. They engage students in
active learning by interacting effectively with students, demonstrating flexibility
and responsiveness, and integrating technology and other resources. They integrate
disciplines into instruction by applying connections to multiple disciplines and demonstrating
connections to real life. They use assessment in instruction by incorporating performance
tasks in the classroom, using questioning and discussion techniques, and using pre-assessment,
formative assessment, and summative assessment appropriately. They embed diversity
in decision-making by selecting resources, delivering instruction, and assessing learning,
- Effective teachers participate in professional responsibilities. They advocate for
children, in terms of services and supports by communicating with families and demonstrating
knowledge of resources in school and the community. They collaborate to improve professional
practice by engaging in a professional community, participating in professional development,
collaborating with teachers and mentors, developing goals for social justice, and
using research-based practices that include current available technology. They reflect
on teaching and learning, focusing on cultural contexts and social justice and systematically
collect and analyze data to improve practice.
Roles and Responsibilities of Professionals in Educational Leadership
- Establish and support vision. School leaders engage the school community in developing
and maintaining a student-centered vision for education, which forms the basis for
school goals and guides the preparation of students as effective, lifelong learners
in a pluralistic society.
- Support effective teaching and learning. School leaders use knowledge of teaching
and learning in working collaboratively with the faculty and staff to implement effective
and innovative practices, which engage students in meaningful and challenging learning
- Manage the school environment. School leaders promote the success of all students
by ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for a safe and
orderly learning environment.
- Improve school and system practice. School leaders work with the school community
to review data from multiple sources to establish challenging standards, monitor progress,
and foster the continuous growth of all students.
- Implement professional development. School leaders work collaboratively with the school
faculty and staff to plan and implement professional development activities that promote
both individual and organizational growth and lead to improved teaching and learning.
- Build school and community relations. School leaders use an understanding of the culture
of the community to create and sustain mutually supportive school-community relations.
- Align practice with ethical standards. School leaders demonstrate honesty, integrity,
and fairness to guide school programs in an ethical manner.
Roles and Responsibilities of Professionals in Counselor Education
- Design, implement, monitor, and evaluate programs. Counselors develop effective and
comprehensive programs, which incorporate an awareness of various systems that affect
students, school, and home.
- Advocate for children, services, and supports. Counselors are effective advocates
for students, families, and school communities.
- Provide individual, group, and family counseling. Counselors promote school success
as measured by the academic, career, and personal/social development of all students.
- Offer career and academic guidance. Counselors utilize developmental approaches to
assist all students and parents at points of educational transition for all students.
- Collaborate to support group practice. Counselors link multiple stakeholders in the
school and community to effect positive change using strategies that are grounded
in the interaction of practice and theory.
- Consult with teachers and parents/legal guardians. Counselors act as a resource regarding
a variety of issues that pertain to the developmental needs of all students.
Programs of study are performance-based and go beyond simply aligning specific competencies
with specific courses. We support our candidates through community partnerships and
merging course content with authentic practice. This model ensures that our teachers,
school leaders, and counselors can produce effective outcomes for their students and
school leaders for the schools in which they work.
Role focused: Our programs focus on the roles of effective teachers, leaders, and
counselors as explained in the Conceptual Framework. The faculty models for candidates
the roles and responsibilities expected of them.
Sequenced field activities and clinical practice: Our programs of study include well-crafted
field experiences and clinical practice that offer targeted preparation in schools.
Complexity increases as candidates progress through our programs.
Authentic Evaluation: Our programs use a professional portfolio as the key tool for
evaluating effectiveness and content mastery. Portfolio review takes place at distinct
points during the program of study in order to identify both professional strengths
and areas of need.
Collaborative Induction: Our programs align with the requirements of the accrediting
agencies and are designed to support beginning professionals’ transition to the workplace.
Our Conceptual Framework provides the basis for coherence in our programs. We continually
review our programs to align course work, field experiences, clinical practice and
assessments with best practices in theory and research. Our programs are specifically
aligned with national and state standards.
The Teacher Education Council, Course Content and Field Experiences Committee, Candidate
Assessment and Program Evaluation Committee, and the faculty as a whole hold regular
meetings to ensure that course content, field experiences, clinical practice, and
candidate assessment activities are coherent and consistent with the Conceptual Framework
of the unit. Faculty members have also developed course syllabi to reflect alignment
with the Conceptual Framework. Program Coordinators support collaborative efforts
among faculty members to ensure that course content, field experiences, clinical practice,
and candidate assessment activities are designed and implemented in a coherent manner.
Professional Commitments and Dispositions
Becoming Reflective Practitioners requires candidates to demonstrate the professional
commitments and dispositions of effective educators. Our Conceptual Framework is grounded
in the importance of developing a professional commitment to improving educational
outcomes for students and schools. The initial and advanced programs focus on ensuring
that candidates have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to create a positive
impact on students, schools, and communities. The role framework included in the Conceptual
Framework for each school career area supports candidates in developing their professional
commitment to improved practice.
A second demonstration of professional commitments is represented in the work of the
faculty to redesign the initial teacher education program and the advanced teacher
education and school leadership programs to reflect a performance-based model. Each
program has been revised to ensure that candidates meet unit, state, Common Core,
and national standards associated with effective education.
The UNO program of study supports key dispositions for candidates developed concurrently
with the redesign of programs and the development of the unit assessment system.
The Professional Dispositions of Teacher Candidates:
- Teachers believe in, value and commit to equity and advocacy.
- Teachers believe in, value and commit to professionalism and effective communication.
- Teachers believe in, value and commit to constant improvement.
- Teachers believe in, value and commit to collaboration.
- Teachers believe in, value and commit to flexibility and perseverance.
The program of study is designed based on the premise that teacher candidates develop
their professional dispositions over time. This development is facilitated by new
knowledge gained in coursework as well as new experiences gained via the field assignments
associated with coursework and practice. The design of the dispositions assessment
tool reflects a developmental model with reviews occurring at multiple points in the
program. Teacher candidates, program coordinators, college coordinators, and mentoring
teachers assess professional dispositions to determine each candidate’s readiness
for the profession.
The Dispositions of Educational Leaders:
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to a vision of education.
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to learning excellence.
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to quality organizational planning.
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to ongoing school improvement.
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to professional development.
- School leaders believe in and value fostering school-community relations.
- School leaders believe in, value, and commit to professional ethics.
The Dispositions of Counselors:
- Counselors demonstrate a willingness to engage in professional interactions with persons
from diverse cultures.
- Counselors demonstrate an ability to share knowledge and resources with others and
provide feedback in an appropriate manner.
- Counselors recognize the limits of power in a counseling relationship.
- Counselors convey an interest in the welfare of others.
- Counselors demonstrate a willingness to address personal prejudices and biases.
- Counselors address issues of conflict in appropriate ways and recognize that conflict
may be an area of growth.
- Counselors demonstrate a willingness to respect viewpoints, which differ from his/her
- Counselors maintain a balance in life and are alert to signs of stress.
- Counselors recognize the causal link between personal behavior and consequences.
- Counselors maintain client/colleague/peer confidentiality as defined by the ACA Code
Commitment to Diversity
The unit's commitment to diversity is expressed by interweaving principles of diversity
throughout the conceptual framework. The concept of diversity guides course content,
placement for field experiences, clinical practice, and candidate assessment. The
program of study develops competencies of the candidates to assess learning styles
of PK-12 students, use various strategies to deliver instruction, incorporate multicultural
materials into instruction, and use multiple strategies to assess PK-12 student performance.
All programs of study cover content and experiences related to diversity. The redesigned
undergraduate and MAT programs include coursework required to gain an additional teaching
certificate in both general and special education.
Our commitment to diversity is demonstrated by membership of the faculty of the COEHD
and the population of candidates enrolled in its programs of study. Indeed, our location
in New Orleans provides multiple opportunities to ensure that candidates expand their
knowledge of multiple cultures and demonstrates their ability to create a positive
learning impact for PK-12 students from diverse backgrounds.
Commitment to Social Justice
The COEHD supports the premise that all candidates should possess the knowledge, skills,
and professional dispositions to interact effectively with all children and adults
without discrimination based on race, class, gender, disability/exceptionality, sexual
orientation, and language. Faculty and community partners work together to acknowledge
the achievement gap and work diligently and intentionally to prepare candidates who
are caring, well prepared, and qualified. The commitment to social justice is supported
by the professional dispositions related to equity and advocacy. Faculty and others
in the professional community have opportunities to assess candidates to ensure they
demonstrate the professional dispositions, including value and respect for individual
differences and the premise that all students can learn.
Commitment to Technology
Technology is threaded across: 1) course content, 2) field experiences and clinical
practice completed by candidates, and 3) the unit assessment system to ensure the
unit’s commitment to technology.
As initial candidates progress through their respective programs of study, they apply
technology in three ways: 1) personal use of technology, 2) use of technology to support
instruction, and 3) use of technology to manage classroom and school operations. Candidates
learn to become informed consumers of web-based information, to utilize technology
in the design and delivery of instruction, to communicate with faculty and students
using technology, and to use technology to track student and school performance. Most
candidates utilize Moodle technology within coursework and build electronic professional
portfolios using Live Text.
Candidate Proficiencies Aligned with Professional, Common Core, COMPASS, and State
Throughout the continual process of refining our programs, faculty members have paid
particular attention to align the UNO school career programs with the Common Core
curriculum, professional standards, and state standards. The roles and responsibilities
included in the conceptual framework derived from a process that aligned with the
Common Core Standards, Common Core State Standards, the Louisiana State COMPASS Teacher
Evaluation System, and Danielson’s Framework for Teaching.
Initial program coursework, field work, and candidate assessment activities were aligned
with the Common Core, the standards of the appropriate SPAs, and the conceptual framework
to fully incorporate assessment, classroom practices, technology and social justice.
Advanced program coursework, field work, and candidate assessment activities were
aligned with the standards of the appropriate SPA, the National Board for Professional
Teaching Standards (NBPTS), Common Core Standards, Common Core State Standards, the
Louisiana State COMPASS Teacher Evaluation System, and Danielson’s Framework for Teaching.
The unit assessment system and the various program assessment components, including
work samples, field activities, and performance assessments, document candidate attainment
of professional standards as expressed by the unit, the state, and national professional